Monday, January 13, 2014

Grandfather's Haplogroup L3d1-5

I have been researching on an off the last few days. I have not come across any genealogical surprises, however I do have a surprise on the genetics end of things.

This is one of my grandfather's current matches.

Middle Eastern ancestry, or I should say, more than the mere 0.20 percent he had previously (5 cM Turkey, 7.5 cM from Syria) is something I anticipated after reading about his haplogroup (L3d1-5). The origin of the haplogroup is widely contested. However one thing remains clear. There are people from West-Central Africa, North Africa, East Africa, the Middle East, and also African Americans who share this haplogroup (1-5 is all inclusive apparently. Perhaps because it cannot be reliably broken into subhaplotypes. Which may be because of the aforementioned dispute on its origins).   

L3 is believed to have arisen in Eastern Africa between 84,000 to 104,000 years ago. An analysis of 369 complete African L3 sequences places the maximum of its expansion at ∼70 ka, virtually ruling out a successful exit out of Africa before 74 ka, the date of the Toba volcanic super-eruption in Sumatra. The Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor for the L3 lineage has also recently been estimated to be between 58,900 to 70,200 Years ago.
 So L3 is differentiated from M and N but not from other L3 haplotypes, even those geographically distant, say carriers from West Africa and those from Yemen.

Here are some sources on the issue:
L3d1-5 come from Syria, "L3d - West-Central Africa. Among the Fulani,[5] Chadians,[5] Ethiopians,[13] Akan people,[14] Mozambique,[13] and Yemen[13] (Egyptians) reference behar"

L3 is actually the haplogroup from which all other nonAfrican haplogroups split (Into M and N). So some purport that is of West African origin, while others believe that it has either an East African, Middle Eastern, or Eurasian origin. Given the evidence, that is, the number of people with the haplogroup itself, any of these plausible.

In addition to being popular among West Africans and African Americans:

Subhaplogroup L3d - West Africa Fulbe
Subhaplogroup L3d1- Central Africa- Among the Fulani, Cushitic and Oromo Ethiopians, 3% Mozambique and 5% in Yemen Pereira et al. (2001) and Salas et al. (2002).
A number of types are found in SouthEastern Africa, including one type (in L3d1), matching a Fulbe/Fulani lineage
however relative L3d1"5* is found in Syria, among other places (Chad, Kenya), so maybe it has a West Asian origin (ref. post), however a North African origin is more likely in my opinion.
>L3d1-5 [L3d1-5*: Kenya, Chad, Syria]
_______________________________>>>L3d1a [L3d1a*: Yemen]
__________________________________>L3d1a1 [West Africa, Chad, Kenya, SA, Yemen, Brahui]
_______________________________>L3d1b [West Africa, Chad, Ethiopia]
_______________________________>>>>>L3d1c [North Africa]
_______________________________>>L3d1d [SA]
______________________________>>L3d2 [Burkina]
______________________________>>>L3d3 [L3d3*: Jordan]
_________________________________>>>>L3d3a [SA" means non-Khoisan Southern Africans (often Mozambicans)]

Middle Eastern and North African results from my family members:

Uncle: Syria (Person A 7.6 cM, Person B 6.2 cM) Ethiopia (5.2 cM)

Grandmother: Syria (6.2 cM), Ethiopia (5.2 cM)

 Mother: Palestinian Territory (12.6 cM), Algeria (5.4 cM)

Grandfather: Palestinian Territory (12.3 cM), Turkey (5 cM, yes Turkey is West Asia, I know. But I thought it'd be interesting to include it anyways since I think it's linked with the general Eurasian theory/link from my father's African lineage to his apparent Middle Eastern ancestry), Syria (7.5 cM)


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  2. Hello. For my 23andMe results, my mtDNA results are L3d1-5 as well.

  3. I am on FamilyTreeDNA and L3d1-5 are my results as well. I am trying to find out what this means as thet have no matches for me.

  4. I am on FamilyTreeDNA and L3d1-5 are my results as well. I am trying to find out what this means as thet have no matches for me.